Americas Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework

“We acknowledge the need for comprehensive actions to enhance protection and respond to the most urgent needs of asylum seekers, refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), migrants and returnees with protection needs as well as other affected populations in the Northern Triangle of Central America” San Jose Action Statement, endorsed by the Governments of Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama and the United States of America

  • 66.8% Poverty Rate (UNDP)

  • 0.606 Human Development Index (UNDP)

  • 6.3% Unemployment Rate (World Bank)

  • 3.6% GDP Growth (World Bank)


The countries of the north of Central America (NCA) are experiencing socio-economic turmoil and high levels of violence resulting in a multi-causal large movement of IDPs, refugees and migrants throughout the region. In recent years, however, the region has witnessed a drastic increase in the number of persons fleeing violence in the NCA to seek international protection in neighbouring countries. Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America are all affected, either as countries of origin, transit or destination, and in some cases, in a combination of these. At the same time, despite efforts to begin addressing root causes of displacement, all indications point to the fact that forced displacement from and in the NCA countries is likely to continue.

Prior to the 2016 Summit on Refugees and Migrants in New York, States in the region already had recognised the need for a comprehensive regional approach to the complex situation of forced displacement in the NCA that simultaneously targets countries of origin, transit and destination. Through the Brazil Plan of Action and subsequently the 2016 San Jose Action Statement, States committed collectively to address the various dimensions of the situation, including in the areas of prevention and root causes, protection measures within countries of origin and enhancing the provision of international protection for asylum-seekers and refugees fleeing these countries. Such an approach requires a mixture of humanitarian and development measures, human security related incentives and macro-economic support.

Key Needs

  • The Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework (CRPSF) will aim at securing the support of different stakeholders to address the specific and quantified needs identified during the national and regional consultations, including through innovative responsibility sharing arrangements. Additional support would focus on strengthening of asylum systems; increasing prospects for access alternative legal pathways and durable solutions, through in-country processing programs and the Protection Transfer Arrangement (PTA) that offers protection to persons at heightened risk through evacuation procedures; promoting better targeted support by international and regional financial institutions; creating and leveraging new partnerships supporting those who are forcibly displaced and the communities hosting them through the employment and education opportunities or the funding of programmes and encouraging international recognition the extraordinary regional solidarity and responsibility-sharing mechanisms that exist in the Americas.

Existing Frameworks

  • Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action - In December 2014, the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean met in Brasilia to mark the 30th anniversary of the Cartagena Declaration on Refugees of 1984 and adopted by acclamation the Declaration and Plan of Action of Brasilia, agreeing to work together to maintain the highest standards of protection at the international and regional level, implement innovative solutions for refugees and displaced persons, and end the difficult situation faced by the stateless persons in the region.

  • San Jose Action statement - In the San Jose Action Statement, States in the region have already acknowledged the need for comprehensive actions to enhance protection and respond to the most urgent needs of asylum seekers, refugees, IDPs, migrants and returnees in the NTCA, and made a number of commitments to this end. The Declaration, which further builds on earlier commitments made in the Brazil Plan of Action, highlights that the region is well disposed to facing the current situation through cooperation and responsibility sharing mechanisms. Further, a wide range of active stakeholders from international organizations and financial institutions, civil society, private sector and academia are actively engaged with these mechanisms.

CRRF Partners

Under Development

  Latest Documents


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