The countries of the north of Central America (NCA) are experiencing socio-economic turmoil and high levels of violence resulting in a multi-causal large movement of IDPs, refugees and migrants throughout the region. In recent years, however, the region has witnessed a drastic increase in the number of persons fleeing violence in the NCA to seek international protection in neighbouring countries. Belize, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America are all affected, either as countries of origin, transit or destination, and in some cases, in a combination of these. At the same time, despite efforts to begin addressing root causes of displacement, all indications point to the fact that forced displacement from and in the NCA countries is likely to continue.
Prior to the 2016 Summit on Refugees and Migrants in New York, States in the region already had recognised the need for a comprehensive regional approach to the complex situation of forced displacement in the NCA that simultaneously targets countries of origin, transit and destination. Through the Brazil Plan of Action and subsequently the 2016 San Jose Action Statement, States committed collectively to address the various dimensions of the situation, including in the areas of prevention and root causes, protection measures within countries of origin and enhancing the provision of international protection for asylum-seekers and refugees fleeing these countries. Such an approach requires a mixture of humanitarian and development measures, human security related incentives and macro-economic support.